The proposed research seeks to develop and test a measure of partisan hatred (see p. 6 below) that builds on existing ethnic hatred measures. Using these newly developed measures, I seek to better understand the sources of partisan hatred by taking the newly developed partisan hatred measure as my dependent variable and conducting multivariate analyses that:
a) test for a correlation between partisan hatred and key individual-level characteristics such as socio-demographic indicators (age, education, income, race/ethnicity, sex), religious preferences (especially religiosity), ideological identification/intensity, and partisan identification/intensity. Current research documents a connection between these characteristics and much of the documented issue-based and affective polarization.
b) test the hypotheses that those who pay more attention to politics and possess more political knowledge exhibit higher levels of partisan hatred. Based on existing studies showing that those who are more attentive and knowledgeable about politics tend to have more information on which to form opinions, including dislike for partisan opponents.